Whilst looking for improved illustrations of the god who emerged from the sea called in Sumerian legend, Oannes, above top left, I came across similar sculptures in the Father Crespi collection in Ecuador, above centre and right. Instead of having a "fish head" aspect, these sculptures portrayed instead an "eagle head" aspect.
Age[ edit ] Researchers have worked to determine the age of the Pumapunku complex since the discovery of the Tiwanaku site. As noted by Andean specialist, W. Isbell, professor at Binghamton University a radiocarbon date was obtained by Vranich  from organic material from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill forming the Pumapunku.
Since the radiocarbon date came sumerian writing at puma punku location the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the andesite and sandstone stonework, the stonework must have been constructed sometime after AD — The excavation trenches of Vranich show that the clay, sand, and gravel fill of the Pumapunku complex lie directly on the sterile middle Pleistocene sediments.
These excavation trenches also demonstrated the lack of any pre-Andean Middle Horizon cultural deposits within the area of the Tiwanaku Site adjacent to the Pumapunku complex. The second largest stone block found within the Pumapunku is 7. Its weight has been estimated to be Smaller andesite blocks that were used for stone facing and carvings came from quarries within the Copacabana Peninsula about 90 kilometres 56 miles away from and across Lake Titicaca from the Pumapunku and the rest of the Tiwanaku Site.
Several theories have been proposed as to how this labor force transported the stones, although these theories remain speculative. Two of the more common proposals involve the use of llama skin ropes and the use of ramps and inclined planes.
The blocks were fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar. One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle.
However, the blocks do not have the same dimensions, although they are close. They were initially pounded by stone hammers, which can still be found in numbers on local andesite quarries, creating depressions, and then slowly ground and polished with flat stones and sand.
Demonstration of the building block technique Demonstration of the building block technique Puma Punku was a large earthen platform mound with three levels of stone retaining walls. By alternating layers of sand from the interior and layers of composite from the exterior, the fills would overlap each other at the joints, essentially grading the contact points to create a sturdy base.
These I-shaped cramps were also used on a section of canal found at the base of the Akapana pyramid at Tiwanaku. These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-lined canals that drain sunken courts.
I-cramps of unknown composition were used to hold together the massive slabs that formed Pumapunku's four large platforms. In the south canal of the Pumapunku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots.
This area might have been viewed as the center of the Andean world, attracting pilgrims from far away to marvel in its beauty. These structures transformed the local landscape; Pumapunku was purposely integrated with Illimani mountain, a sacred peak that the Tiwanaku possibly believed to be home to the spirits of their dead.
This area was believed to have existed between heaven and Earth. The spiritual significance and the sense of wonder would have been amplified into a "mind-altering and life-changing experience"  through the use of hallucinogenic plants. Examinations of hair samples exhibit remnants of psychoactive substances in many mummies found in Tiwanaku culture from Northern Chile, even those of babies as young as one year of age, demonstrating the importance of these substances to the Tiwanaku.
The remains of dismembered bodies have been found throughout the area. Ceramic artifacts depict imagery of warriors, masked with puma skulls, decapitating their enemies and holding trophy skulls, and adorned with belts of human heads with their tongues torn out.
At its peak the Tiwanaku culture dominated the entire Lake Titicaca basin as well as portions of Bolivia and Chile. A likely scenario involves rapid environmental changepossibly involving an extended drought.
Unable to produce the massive crop yields necessary for their large population, the Tiwanaku are argued to have scattered into the local mountain rangesonly to disappear shortly thereafter.Puma Punku is so unique in the way that it was constructed and shaped and positioned, that it is the most intriguing ancient site on the planet.
Mainstream scholars believe the blocks found at Puma Punku were formed by hand with primitive stone tools.
By comparing the Fuente Magna scripts and symbols with the Vai writing, Winters found many matches. Then after referring to several published works on the Sumerian language and writing system, e.g., C.S. Ball, Chinese and Sumerian (London, ), and John A.
Halloran, Sumerian Lexicon, he was able to decipher the Fuente Magna writing. Researchers worldwide believe that this ceramic bowl provides proof of otherworldly contact at Puma Punku.
But why is this piece of ceramic so important? Well, written on it you will find Sumerian cuneiform and Proto-Sumerian hieroglyphs, and this is actually a big deal because according to researchers, Sumerians and the ancient people who inhabited Tiahuanaco and Puma Punku were never connected.
Background - Back Story. Tiwanaku is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia. It is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state .
The ruins of Puma Punku are one of four structures in the ancient city of Tiahuanaco. In legend it is the location of the birth of the nation. The origin of the Inca civilisation is shrouded in mystery. that researchers had been unable to read the writing because they refused to compare Proto-Elamite and Proto-Sumerian writing with.
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